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Set a daunting target of 458, India's famed batting order failed to bat out the final day as they folded up for 261 in 96.3 overs at Lord's.
The left-handed Raina stood bravely amid the ruins with a gritty knock during which he faced 136 balls and hit 10 boundaries, while VVS Laxman (54) and Dravid (36) were the other notable scorers in a rather disappointing batting show by the number one Test team.
The Indians needed to play out the fifth day but a combination of poor shot selection and some horrendous strokes allowed the hosts to run away with the match at a packed Lord's, a record as far as turnout is concerned at the hallowed venue.
The English dressing room broke into celebration as Stuart Broad trapped last man Ishant Sharma to signal the victory in the centenary Test between the two sides.
The two teams will now travel to Nottingham for the second Test beginning July 29.
James Anderson was the pick of the English bowlers, finishing with impressive figures of five for 65, while Broad took three for 57 to break the back of a team, which will lose its numero uno status if the hosts win the series by two or more Tests.